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The Biography Of Xi Jinping

 The Biography Of Xi Jinping Born                       : 15 June 1953 (age 62)                                   Beijing, China Political ...

 The Biography Of Xi Jinping
Born                       : 15 June 1953 (age 62)
                                  Beijing, China
Political party         : Communist Party
Spouse(s)                : Ke Lingling (divorced)
                                  Peng Liyuan (m. 1987)
Children                   : Mingze
Residence                 : Zhongnanhai
Alma mater               : Tsinghua University

The Biography Of Xi Jinping

Xi married Ke Lingling, the daughter of Ke Hua, an ambassador to Britain in the early 1980s. They divorced within a few years.

Xi married the prominent Chinese folk singer Peng Liyuan in 1987. Peng Liyuan, a household name in China, was much better known to the public than Xi until his political elevation. The couple frequently lived apart due largely to their separate professional lives. Xi and Peng have a daughter named Xi Mingze, who enrolled as a freshman at Harvard University in the autumn of 2010 under a pseudonym.

Peng described Xi as hardworking and down-to-earth. "When he comes home, I've never felt as if there's some leader in the house. In my eyes, he's just my husband." Peng has played a much more visible role as China's "first lady" compared to her predecessors; for example, Peng hosted U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama on the latter's high-profile visit to China in March 2014. Xi was described in a 2011 The Washington Post article by those who know him as "pragmatic, serious, cautious, hard-working, down to earth and low-key". Xi was also described as a good hand at problem solving and "seemingly uninterested in the trappings of high office." He is also known to love U.S. films, such as Saving Private Ryan and The Departed. He also praised the independent film maker Jia Zhangke. He is also reported to be a fan of The Godfather movies.

Xi is 180 cm (5'11") in height, approximately 7 cm taller than his predecessor, Hu Jintao. Having been raised in Beijing, Xi speaks Mandarin Chinese without any regional accents.

In June 2012, Bloomberg reported that members of Xi's extended family have substantial business interests, although there was no evidence that they had been assisted by Xi's political position.[126] The Bloomberg website was blocked in mainland China in response to the article. Since embarking on an anti-corruption campaign, Xi's family were reported by the New York Times to be selling their corporate and real estate investments beginning in 2012, reportedly to decrease Xi's own political vulnerability.

Xi Jinping (pinyin: Xí Jìnpíng), pronounced  born 15 June 1953) is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the President of the People's Republic of China, and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. As Xi holds the top offices of the party and the military, in addition to being the head of state through the office of President, he is sometimes informally referred to as China's "paramount leader". As General Secretary, Xi is also an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.

Son of communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, Xi Jinping rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. He served as the Governor of Fujian between 1999 and 2002, then as Governor and Party Secretary of the neighboring Zhejiang between 2002 and 2007. Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as the Party Secretary for a brief period in 2007. Xi joined the Politburo Standing Committee and Central Secretariat in October 2007 and was groomed[clarification needed] to become Hu Jintao's successor. He served as Vice-President between 2008 and 2013.

Xi is now the leader of the People's Republic's fifth generation of leadership. Since assuming leadership, he has initiated an unprecedented and far-reaching campaign against corruption, called for further market economic reforms, governing according to the law and strengthening legal institutions, and an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the neologism "Chinese Dream".

Xi has also imposed restrictions over ideological discourse, attempted to entrench and legitimize the authority of the Communist Party over Chinese society,[clarification needed] while also introducing far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and ensure internal unity. He has significantly centralized institutional power through taking on a wide range of leadership positions himself, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on overall reform, military reform, and the Internet. Xi has also championed a more assertive foreign policy, particularly in relation to Sino-Japanese relations, disputes in the South China Sea, involvement in Asian regional affairs, and initiatives related to energy and natural resources.

Xi Jinping was born on 15 June 1953 in Beijing. His father, Xi Zhongxun (1913–2002), was a Communist revolutionary figure. After the founding of the Communist state in 1949, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, Vice-Premier, and Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Shaanxi, and Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. He is the second son of Xi Zhongxun and his wife Qi Xin.

When Xi was 10, his father was purged and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, Xi's secondary education was cut short by the Cultural Revolution, when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Xi was 15 when his father was jailed in 1968 during the Cultural Revolution. Without the protection of his father, Xi went to work in Yanchuan County, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. He later became the Party branch secretary of the production team. When he left in 1975, he was only 22 years old. When asked about this experience later by state television, Xi recalled it saying, "It was emotional. It was a mood. And when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."

From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University as a "Worker, Peasant, PLA" student (gongnongbing xuesheng). In 1975, education was more political and practical than professional, and Tsinghua University "was no longer so much a centre of learning, but functioned as a liaison office, where science and engineering majors spent 80% of their time on learning practical subjects and working in factories, 15% of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought and 5% of their time doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army".

From 1998 to 2002, he studied Marxist philosophy and ideological education in an "on-the-job" postgraduate programme at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, again at Tsinghua University, and obtained a Doctor of Law (LLD) degree, which was a degree covering fields of law, politics, management, and revolutionary history. However, commentators have questioned this qualification, pointing out a series of problems with it. The Sunday Times of London commissioned scholars to read the unpublished PhD thesis who noted that the content has little to do with law, appears to contain no original research, and reads like a collection of quotes from existing published works.Writer Joe Chung compared Xi's works with those of other scholars and found that numerous passages had been copied from previously published works or works published around the same time as Xi's. In one case, citations were shown to have been copied from another work, including misspellings and punctuation errors in that previously published work. Based on this research, Chung raised the question of whether Xi plagiarised his PhD.

From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the then vice premier and Secretary-General of the Central Military Commission. This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study American agriculture, he visited the town of Muscatine, Iowa.

Xi joined the Communist Youth League in 1971 and the Communist Party of China in 1974. In 1982, he was sent to Zhengding County in Hebei as deputy Party Secretary of Zhengding County. He was promoted in 1983 to Secretary, becoming the top official of the county. Xi subsequently served in four provinces during his regional political career: Hebei (1982–1985), Fujian (1985–2002), Zhejiang (2002–2007), and Shanghai (2007).

Xi held posts in the Fuzhou Municipal Party Committee and became the president of the Party School in Fuzhou in 1990. In 1999, he was promoted to the office of Vice Governor of Fujian, then he became Governor a year later. In Fujian, Xi made efforts to attract investment from Taiwan and to strengthen the private sector of the provincial economy. In February 2000, he and then-provincial Party Secretary Chen Mingyi were called before the top members of the Party Central Politburo Standing Committee – General Secretary Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji, Vice-President Hu Jintao and Discipline Inspection secretary Wei Jianxing to explain aspects of the Yuanhua scandal.

In 2002, Xi left Fujian and took up leading political positions in neighbouring Zhejiang province, eventually taking over as provincial party chief after several months as acting Governor, occupying a top provincial office for the first time in his career. In 1997, Xi was named an alternate member of the 15th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. However, out of the 151 alternate members of the Central Committee elected at the 15th Party Congress, Xi received the lowest number of votes in favour, placing him in last place in the rankings of members, ostensibly due to his status as a Princeling. In 2002, Xi was elected a full member of the 16th Central Committee, marking his ascension to the national stage. While in Zhejiang, Xi presided over economic conditions which secured growth rates averaging 14% per year. His career in Zhejiang was marked by tough and straightforward stance against corrupt officials, which earned him a name on the national media and drew the attention of China's top leaders.

Following the dismissal of Shanghai Party Chief Chen Liangyu in September 2006 due to a social security fund scandal, Xi was transferred to Shanghai in March 2007 to become the party chief of Shanghai. Xi spent only seven months in Shanghai, but his appointment to one of the most important regional posts in China sent a clear signal that Xi was highly regarded by China's top leadership and was destined for even higher office. In Shanghai, Xi avoided controversy, and was known for strictly observing party discipline. For example, Shanghai administrators attempted to earn favour with Xi by arranging a special train to shuttle him between Shanghai and Hangzhou (capital of Zhejiang province) in order for him to complete handing off his work to his successor as Zhejiang party chief Zhao Hongzhu. However, Xi reportedly refused to take the train, citing a loosely enforced party regulation which stipulated that special trains can only be reserved for "national leaders." While in Shanghai, he worked on preserving unity of the local party organization, and made a pledge that there would be no 'purges' during his administration, despite the fact that many local officials were thought to have been implicated in the Chen Liangyu corruption scandal. On most issues Xi largely echoed the line of the central leadership. Xi's career is notable in that during his regional tenures, he was never implicated in any serious scandals, nor did he face serious political opposition.

In February 2009, in his capacity as Vice-President, Xi Jinping embarked on a tour of Latin America, visiting Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil to promote Chinese ties in the region and boost the country's reputation in the wake of the global financial crisis. He also visited Valletta, Malta, before returning to China.

On 11 February, while visiting Mexico, Xi spoke in front of a group of overseas Chinese and explained China's contributions to the financial crisis, saying that it was "the greatest contribution towards the whole of human race, made by China, to prevent its 1.3 billion people from hunger". He followed with a rather direct accusation for "foreigners" trying to interfere in Chinese affairs, a subject that has always been sensitive in Chinese political circles. In Chinese, Xi remarked: "There are some bored foreigners, with full stomachs, who have nothing better to do than point fingers at us [China]. First, China doesn't export revolution; second, China doesn't export hunger and poverty; third, China doesn't come and cause you headaches, what more is there to be said?" The story was reported on some local television stations. The news led to a flood of discussions on Chinese internet forums. It was reported that the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs was caught off-guard by Xi's remarks, as the actual video was shot by some accompanying Hong Kong reporters and broadcast on Hong Kong TV, which then turned up in various internet video websites.

Xi continued his international trips, some say to burnish his foreign affairs credentials prior to taking the helm of China's leadership. Xi visited Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 7 to 21 October 2009.[50] Xi visited Japan, South Korea, Cambodia, and Myanmar on his Asian trip from 14 to 22 December 2009.

Xi visited the United States, Ireland and Turkey in February 2012. The visit included meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama at the White House and Vice President Joe Biden, with whom he had met extensively in China in August 2011; and stops in California and Iowa, where he met with the family which previously hosted him during his 1985 tour as a Hebei provincial official.

On 15 November 2012, Xi Jinping was elected to the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission by the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, making him – informally – the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China. On the following day, Xi led the new line-up of the Politburo Standing Committee onto the stage in their first public appearance. The new Standing Committee decreased its number of seats from nine to seven, with only Xi himself and Li Keqiang retaining their seats from the previous Standing Committee; the remaining members were new. In a marked departure from the common practice of Chinese leaders, Xi's first speech as General Secretary was plainly worded and did not include any political slogans or mention of his predecessors. Xi mentioned the aspirations of the average person, remarking, "Our people  expect better education, more stable jobs, better income, more reliable social security, medical care of a higher standard, more comfortable living conditions, and a more beautiful environment." Xi also vowed to tackle corruption at the highest levels, alluding that it would threaten the Party's survival; he was reticent about far-reaching economic reforms.

In December 2012, Xi visited Guangdong in his first trip outside of Beijing since taking the Party leadership. The overarching theme of the trip was to call for further economic reform and a strengthened military. Xi paid tribute to the statue of Deng Xiaoping and his trip was described as following in the footsteps of Deng's own southern trip in 1992, which provided the impetus for further economic reforms in China after conservative party leaders stalled many of Deng's reforms in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Xi also visited the Haikou destroyer, which had been patrolling the South China Sea, and also gave a speech to the Guangzhou military region. On his trip, Xi consistently alluded to his signature slogan the "Chinese Dream." "This dream can be said to be the dream of a strong nation. And for the military, it is a dream of a strong military", Xi told sailors. Xi's trip was significant in that he departed from established convention of Chinese leaders' travel routine in multiple ways. Rather than dining out, Xi and his entourage ate regular hotel buffet. He traveled in a large van with his colleagues rather than a fleet of limousines, and did not restrict traffic on the parts of the highway he traveled on.

Xi was elected President of the People's Republic of China on 14 March 2013, in a confirmation vote by the 12th National People's Congress in Beijing. He received 2,952 for, one vote against, and three abstentions. He replaced Hu Jintao, who retired after serving two terms. Although the presidency is officially a ceremonial post, in recent years it has become customary for the general secretary to assume the presidency as confirmation of his rise to power.

The liberal reformer Li Yuanchao was elected as Vice President in a 2839 to 80 vote, becoming the first vice-president not to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee since Rong Yiren in 1998.

In his new capacity as President, on 16 March Xi expressed support for noninterference in China–Sri Lanka relations amid a United Nations Security Council vote to condemn that country over government abuses during the Sri Lankan Civil War. On 17 March, Xi and his new ministers arranged a meeting with the chief executive of Hong Kong, CY Leung, confirming his support for Leung. Within hours of his election, Xi discussed cyber security and North Korea with U.S. President Barack Obama over the phone, who announced the visits of Treasury and State secretaries Jacob Lew and John F. Kerry to China on the following week. Within a week of his assuming the Presidency, Xi embarked on a trip to Russia, Tanzania, South Africa, and Republic of Congo.

Source : Wikipedia



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