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Stephen Hawking Biography

Stephen Hawking Biography Born Name                 : Stephen William Hawking                                      8 January 1942 (age 6...

Stephen Hawking Biography

Born Name                 : Stephen William Hawking
                                     8 January 1942 (age 69)
                                     Oxford, England
Residence                    : England
Nationality                   :British
Fields                           :Applied mathematics
                                     Theoretical physics
                                     Cosmology
Institutions                    : Cambridge University
                                      California Institute of Technology
                                      Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Alma mater                   :Oxford University
                                     :Cambridge University
Doctoral advisor            : Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors : Robert Berman
Doctoral students            : Bruce Allen
                                        Raphael Bousso
                                        Fay Dowker
                                        Malcolm Perry
                                        Bernard Carr
                                        Gary Gibbons
                                        Harvey Reall
                                        Don Page
                                        Tim Prestidge
                                        Raymond Laflamme
                                        Julian Luttrell
Known for                      : Black holes
                                        Theoretical cosmology
                                        Quantum gravity
                                        Hawking radiation
Influences                        : Dikran Tahta
                                         Albert Einstein
Notable awards               :Wolf Prize (1988)
                                         Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
                                         Copley Medal (2006)
                                         Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Spouse                             : Jane Hawking
                                          (m. 1965–1991, divorced)
                                          Elaine Mason

Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel Hawking. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. Though Hawking's parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxford while his mother was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child. (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe.) According to Hawking, a German V-2 missile struck only a few streets away.
After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research.In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire, where he attended St Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls' school until the age of ten.) From the age of eleven, he attended St Albans School, where he was a good, but not exceptional, student.When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named his mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta. He maintains his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited it to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, The Albanian.

Hawking was always interested in science. Inspired by his mathematics teacher, he originally wanted to study the subject at university. However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to University College, Oxford, where his father had attended. As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time, it would not accept applications from students who wished to read that discipline. Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences, in which he gained a scholarship. Once at University College, Hawking specialised in physics. His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine:

Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for 30 years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1 October 2009.[5][6] He is now Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge. He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario.He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes. He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.
Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding gravitational singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein–Hawking radiation).
Hawking has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.

source : wikipedia
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